Nearly 70% of ovarian cancer (OC) patients experience recurrence within the first 2 years after initial treatment. Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of OC progression, resistance to therapy and recurrent OC (ROC). Transcriptome profiling studies have reported differential expression patterns of lncRNAs in OC which are related to increased cell invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. In this review, we highlighted the roles of lncRNAs in OC progression and outlined the potential molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs impact on ROC. Recent advances using lncRNAs as potential biomarkers for screening, detection, prediction, response to therapy and as therapeutic targets are discussed.