Photocatalytic CO2 reduction is an appealing approach to convert solar energy into high value-added chemicals. All-inorganic CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as a promising photocatalyst for reducing CO2. However, pristine CsPbBr3 has a low catalytic performance, mainly due to severe charge recombination. Herein, a 0D/2D heterojunction of CsPbBr3 QDs/Bi2WO6 nanosheet (CPB/BWO) photocatalysts is fabricated for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. The CPB/BWO photocatalyst achieves excellent photocatalytic performance: the total yield of CH4/CO is 503 μmol g–1, nearly 9.5 times higher than the pristine CsPbBr3. The CPB/BWO heterojunction also exhibits much-improved stability during photocatalytic reactions. On the basis of various characterization techniques, our investigations verified a direct Z-scheme charge migration mechanism between CsPbBr3 QDs and Bi2WO6 nanosheets. The improved photocatalytic performance is originated from the high spatial separation of photoexcited charge carriers in CPB/BWO, which can also preserve strong individual redox abilities of two components. This work reports an efficient direct Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalytic system based on metal halide perovskites. The novel strategy we proposed may bring up new opportunities for the development of metal halide perovskite photocatalysts with greatly enhanced activities.