Landau Quantization of a Narrow Doubly-Folded Wrinkle in Monolayer Graphene
Nano Lett. 18(11):6710-6718 Nov 2018 

Ma, Chuanxu; Sun, Xia; Du, Hongjian; Wang, Jufeng; Tian, Mingyang; Zhao, Aidi; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Wang, Bing


Folding can be an effective way to tailor the electronic properties of graphene and has attracted wide study interest in finding its novel properties. Here we present the experimental characterizations of the structural and electronic properties of a narrow graphene wrinkle on a SiO2/Si substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Pronounced and nearly equally separated conductance peaks are observed in the dI/dVspectra of the wrinkle. We attribute these peaks to pseudo-Landau levels (PLLs) that are caused by a gradient-strain-induced pseudomagnetic field up to about 42 T in the narrow wrinkle. The introduction of the gradient strain and thus the pseudomagnetic field can be ascribed to the lattice deformation. A doubly-folded structure of the wrinkle is suggested. Our density functional theory calculations show that the band structure of the doubly folded graphene wrinkle has a parabolic dispersion, which can well explain the equally separated PLLs. The effective mass of carriers is obtained to be about 0.02me(me: the rest mass of electron), and interestingly, it is revealed that there exists valley polarization in the wrinkle. Such properties of the strained doubly folded wrinkle may provide a platform to explore some exciting phenomena in graphene, like zero-field quantum valley Hall effect. 

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